- Chandrayaan-II is India’s second moon exploration campaign after Chandrayaan-1, which was developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The campaign has been launched by the GSLV version 3 launch vehicle. This campaign includes a moon chamber, a rover and a Lander built in India. All this has been developed by ISRO. India successfully launched Chandrayaan-II on 22nd July, 2019 from Sriharikota range on Indian time 02:43 PM .
- Chandrayaan-2 Lander and Rover will attempt to land on a high field between two craters Mazinus C and Simplicius N. located on the Moon at approximately 70 ° South latitude. The wheeled rover will run on the moon surface and will conduct a chemical analysis of the place. Wheeled rover will run on the surface of the moon and at the same time collect the clay or rock samples for analysis. The data will be sent to Earth through the Chandrayaan-2 orbit.
- On November 12, 2007, representatives of ISRO and Russian Space Agency (Roskosmos) had signed an agreement to work together on Chandrayaan-2 project. The main responsibility of the orbiter and rover was made of ISRO and Roskosmos was responsible for the lander.
- The Indian government approved this campaign on 18th September 2008 at the meeting of Union Cabinet held under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, in which scientists of both countries contributed their jointly.
- However, ISRO finalized payload according to the Chandrayaan-2 program. But the campaign was postponed in January 2013 and redefined the campaign for 2016. Because Russia was unable to develop the lander on time. Roskosmos was later separated from the Chandrayaan-II program due to the failure of the Phobos-Grant campaign sent to Mars, and India decided to independently develop the Moon mission.
- In December 2015, the expenditure of Rs. 603 crores has been allocated for this campaign.
- Orbiter will rotate the moon at a height of 100 kilometers. In this campaign, the orbiter has been sent with 8 payloads. At the time of flight it weighs around 2,379 kg. Orbiter High Resolution Camera will give a higher resolution picture of the landing site before being separated from the lander’s orbiter.
- This orbiter will be able to connect with the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) located in Bangalore. Apart from this, it will also be in contact with the lander.
- The 1,471 kg lander has been named after Vikram Sarabhai, who is called the father of Indian Space Science. There are three payloads on this.
- Unlike Chandrayaan-1 Moon Impact Probe, which will hit the surface of the Moon, the Lander will gradually fall down. Landers will not perform any scientific activities.
- In 2013, the initial configuration of Lander’s initial configuration was completed by the Space Application Center (SAC), Ahmadabad, after showing the inability to make Russia’s lender.
- The research team has identified the landing method for landing on the moon’s surface. And studied the technologies related to it.
- Lander’s main engine has been successfully tested for a period of 513 seconds.
- Lander’s engineering model had to undergo groundwater and aerial tests at the end of October 2016 in Chonlere in Chitradurga district of Karnataka. ISRO has made nearly 10 craters in Choice to help select the landing site and assess the capacity of the lender’s sensor.
- Rover Pragyan is derived from Sanskrit, which means knowledge. There are two payloads on this rover weighing 27 kg. This is a six-wheeled robotic vehicle. With the help of solar power it will be able to run at a speed of one centimeter per second. It is also designed to work on a day of the moon i.e. equivalent to 14 days of earth. During this period, it will cover a total of 500 meters on the surface of the moon.
- In the initial plan the rover was to be designed in Russia and manufactured in India. However, Russia refused to design the rover in May 2010. After this, ISRO decided to design and build the rover itself.
IIT Kanpur developed three sub-systems of Rover to provide mobility:
- Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision – will provide a 3D visualization of the surrounding area of the rover to control the rover, to the ground team.
- Kinetic traction control – This will allow the rover to run on the surface of the Moon and will have the ability to work independently on its six wheels.
- Control and motor mobility – The rover will have six wheels, each powered by the electric motor. Its four wheels will be capable of independent steering. A total of 10 electric motors will be used for traction and steering.
A total of 14 payloads have been included in the second moon mission. Of these, eight are on payload orbiter, three are on payload landers and two are on payload rover. The responsibility of carrying out an important scientific experiment in every payload will remain. Apart from this, there will also be a laser retro lector array (LRA) payload. This will provide information about the internal structure of the moon.
- Terrain Mapping Camera: Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) has been taken from the Space Application Center (SAC), Ahmadabad, which will prepare a three-dimensional map for the study of the mineralogy and geology of the Moon.
- Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer: Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (Class) from ISRO Satellite Center (ISAC), Bangalore for mapping of key elements on the moon surface.
- Solar X-ray Monitor: A Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) has been taken from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmadabad, which will provide input of solar x-ray spectrum.
- Imaging IR spectrometer: Imaging IR spectrometer (IIRS) taken from Space Application Center (SAC), Ahmadabad; for the study of the presence of minerals, water, and hydroxyl, will map a very wide portion of the Moon’s surface.
- Synthetic aperture radar L & S bands: Space Application Center (SAC), Ahmadabad and L & S Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) have been taken, which will find other elements including water ice (icy water) on the moon surface. The SAR is expected to provide more evidence confirming the presence of water ice beneath the shady areas of the Moon.
- Atmospheric composition explorer-2: it will study the atmosphere of the moon.
- Dual Frequency Radio Science Experiment: It will study The Moon’s Einosphere .
- Neutral Mass Spectrometer: This has been taken from Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram (ChACE2) for a detailed study of the Moon’s Extremes.
- Seismometer – will study the earthquake near the landing site
- Thermal probe – will evaluate the thermal properties of the Moon’s surface
- Longmore probe – the density and the surface of the moon will measure plasma
- Radio Overlay Experiment – will measure the total electron content
- Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer: This will analyze components on the Moon surface. It has been taken from PRL, Ahmadabad.
- Laser-induced breakdown spectroscope: This will check the presence of various components around the landing site. It has been taken from the Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore.
Chandrayaan-II was planned to launch Chandrayaan-II by Indian time on the morning of July 15, 2019, in the morning as 2 to 51 minutes (in 24 hours), which was canceled due to some technical problem, changing its time On July 22, 02:43 pm, the result was that the vehicle was successfully launched at the scheduled time.